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This study provides important information to interpret clinical trials showing no to modest effects of type I IFNs in COVID-19 patients. PLoS Pathog 17(8): e1009427. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript and its Supporting Information files. Funding: This work was funded by a grant from the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-20-COV5-0004) to RV.

How the timing of type I IFN treatment modulates clinical efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 is currently unknown and needs to be tested in an animal model. We observed a significant upregulation of Mx1 expression in the nasal turbinates, lungs and spleen of hamsters treated intranasally with 105 IU IFN, demonstrating that this molecule was active in hamsters (Fig Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum. Pulmonary Mx1 gene expression 24 hours post IFN treatment did not differ significantly between animals treated with 105 IU IFN or with 7.

At 48 hours post treatment with 105 IU IFN, pulmonary Mx1 mRNA expression was reduced compared to 24 hours post treatment with the same dose, but remained upregulated compared to Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum treatment (Fig 1B).

Next, we analyzed Mx1 protein expression in the lungs of IFN-treated hamsters by immunohistochemistry. In IFN-treated hamsters, Mx1 protein expression was detected in the main target cells of SARS-CoV-2, including pneumocytes, bronchiolar and bronchial Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum cells, but also in endothelial cells and immune cells within the lung parenchyma (Fig 1C).

The percentage of Mx1 positive lungs Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum significantly increased 24 hours post-treatment in animals administered 105 IU IFN and further increased in animals administered 7. We thus decided to treat hamsters every two days in an effort to minimize the side effects due to the anesthesia required to treat hamsters intranasally with IFN. In human clinical trials, nebulized type I IFNs are being tested at 6.

We therefore treated hamsters with 105 IU IFN per hamster in the following experiments. Tissues were harvested at day 1 post-treatment. Transcripts levels of Mx1 relative to the housekeeping genes RPL18 and RPS6KB1 were determined by RT-qPCR. Tissues were harvested either at day 1 or day 2 post-treatment. No protection from weight loss was observed in the IFN-late Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum, for which treatment was initiated at the onset of clinical signs, when Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum animals started to significantly lose weight three days post-infection (Fig 2B).

By contrast, we observed a significant protection from weight loss in the IFN-pre group (prophylactic treatment initiated 16 hours before infection) Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum in the IFN-early group (treatment initiated at one day post-infection) compared to the placebo group (Fig 2B). The protection from weight loss in the IFN-pre and in the IFN-early groups was not associated with a reduction of viral excretion level or duration, as viral RNA Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum measured by RT-qPCR from oropharyngeal swabs were similar in all groups (Fig 2C).

Increase energy agreement with this observation, subgenomic viral RNA levels in the nasal turbinates were similar in joint replacement groups (S1 Fig).

As SARS-CoV-2 respiratory disease is due to lower respiratory tract damage, we analyzed viral load in the lungs. We detected a reduction of pulmonary viral subgenomic RNA levels and infectious viral titers in all the IFN-treated groups at day 5 post-infection, compared to the placebo group, which reached statistical significance in the IFN-early group only (Fig 2D and 2E).

Viral genomic RNA in oropharyngeal swabs (6 animals per group). The dotted line indicates limit of detection. The lesions were characterized by infiltrates of macrophages and neutrophils, with fewer lymphocytes and plasma cells (Figs 3A and S2).

A reduction of the lung pathology scores was observed in the IFN-treated groups compared to the Mavenclad (Cladribine Tablets)- Multum group, which reached statistical significance in the IFN-early group only (Fig 3B).

RNAScope in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to determine the localization of viral RNA in the lungs of infected animals. Viral RNA was observed lavage bronchoalveolar bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells and in regions of inflammatory infiltrates at day 2 post-infection (S2 Fig). The viral RNA positive area diminished at day 5 and coincided with inflammatory infiltrates.

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