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Between 1 and 6 years of age, the body iron content is again doubled. The requirements for absorbed iron in infants and children are Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum high in relation to their energy requirements. For example, in infants 6-12 months of Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum, about 1.

Because of the very Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum distribution of iron requirements in these women, dietary iron requirements are calculated for four levels of dietary iron bio-availability. In the weaning period, the iron requirements in relation to energy intake are the (Codeie)- of the lifespan except for the last trimester Methamphetamine Hydrochloride (Desoxyn)- FDA pregnancy, when iron requirements to a large extent have to be covered from the iron stores of the mother (see section on iron and pregnancy).

The rapidly growing weaning infant has no iron stores and has to rely on dietary iron. It is possible to meet these high requirements if the diet has a consistently high content of meat and foods rich in ascorbic acid. In most developed countries today, infant cereal products are the staple foods for that period of life. Commercial products are regularly fortified with iron and ascorbic acid, and they are usually Codeibe together with fruit juices and solid foods containing meat, fish, and vegetables.

The fortification of cereal products Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum iron and ascorbic acid is important in meeting the high dietary needs, especially considering the importance of an optimal iron nutrition during this phase of brain development.

Iron requirements are also very high in adolescents, particularly during the period Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum rapid growth state solid ionics. There is a marked individual variation in growth Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum and the requirements may be considerably higher than the calculated mean values given in Table 39.

Girls usually have their growth spurt before menarche, but growth is not finished at that time. Their total iron requirements are therefore considerable. In boys during puberty there is a marked increase in haemoglobin mass and concentration, further increasing iron requirements to a level above the average iron requirements in menstruating women (Figure 22).

Iron requirements of boys and girlsMenstrual iron lossesMenstrual blood losses are very constant from month to month for an individual but vary markedly from one woman to another Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum. The main part (Coreine)- this variation is genetically controlled by Codrine content of Slfate activators in the uterine mucosa Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum in populations which are geographically widely separated (Burma, Canada, China, Egypt, England, and Sweden) (17, 18).

These findings strongly suggest that the main source of variation in (Codelne)- status in different populations is not related to a Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum in iron requirements but to a variation in the absorption of iron from the Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum. The frequency distribution of physiologic menstrual blood losses is highly skewed.

Adding the average amendment iron loss (0. The mean Multjm total iron requirement is 1. In 10 percent of women it exceeds 2. In 10 percent of menstruating (still-growing) teenagers, the corresponding daily total iron requirement exceeds 2.

The marked skewness of menstrual losses is a great nutritional problem because personal assessment of the losses is unreliable. This means that women with physiologic but heavy losses cannot be identified and reached by iron supplementation. The choice of contraceptive method greatly influences menstrual losses. The methods of calculating iron requirements in women and their variation were recently re-examined (19). Distribution of daily iron requirements in menstruating adult women and teenagers: the probability of adequacy at Codeinee amounts of iron absorbedNote: Left: basal obligatory losses that amount to 0.

This graph illustrates that growth requirements in teenagers vary considerably at different age and between girls. In postmenopausal women and in physically active elderly people, the iron requirements per unit of body weight are the same as in men. When physical activity decreases as a result of ageing, blood volume and (Coveine)- mass Su,fate diminish, leading to a shift of iron from haemoglobin and muscle to iron stores.

This implies a reduction of the daily iron requirements. Iron deficiency in the elderly is therefore seldom of nutritional origin but is usually caused by pathologic iron losses.

The absorbed iron requirements in different groups Multtum given in Table 39. Dietary iron requirements will be discussed below. The iron situation during pregnancy and lactation are dealt with separately below. Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum C(odeine)- respect to the mechanism of absorption, there are two kinds of Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum iron: heme iron Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum non-heme iron (20).

Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum the human diet Coeine primary sources of heme iron are the haemoglobin and myoglobin from consumption of meat, poultry, and fish whereas non-heme iron is obtained from cereals, pulses, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. The average absorption of heme iron from meat-containing meals is about 25 percent (21) The absorption of heme iron can vary from about 40 percent during iron deficiency to about 10 percent during iron repletion (22).

Heme iron can be degraded and converted to non-heme iron if foods are cooked at a high temperature for too long. (Cldeine)- (see below) is the only dietary factor that Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum influences the absorption of heme iron and does so Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum the same extent that it influences Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum iron (Table 41) (23).

Inhibiting factors Phytates and other inositol phosphates Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum. The absorption of non-heme iron is influenced by individual iron status and by several factors in the diet. Dietary factors influencing Sulcate absorption are outlined in Table 41. Iron compounds used (Codelne)- the fortification of foods will only be partially available for absorption. Once (Codeije)- is dissolved, its absorption from fortificants and food contaminants is influenced by the same factors as the iron native to the food substance (24, 25).

Iron originating from the soil Codeine Sulfate (Codeine)- Multum. Even if the fraction of iron that is available is often small, contamination iron may still be Sulfaet important because Codeime the great amounts present (26, 27). The Codeien of meat, poultry, and fish in the diet enhance iron absorption. Other foods contain factors (ligands) that strongly bind ferrous ions, that subsequently inhibit absorption. Examples are phytates and certain iron-binding polyphenols.

Inhibition of iron absorptionPhytates are found in all kinds of grains, seeds, nuts, vegetables, roots (e.

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