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Patients were told to abstain from food between 2200 and 0800 on the day of admission so that faecal excretion during the first marriage counseling hours of the study would not be a reflection of intake prior to the balance period.

The study and collection period began at 0800 on the second day of admission sanofi aventis gmbh deutschland patients were requested to urinate, defecate, or empty their stoma bags.

During the next 48 hours, patients collected their faeces, urine, and duplicate diets in the three containers. Before admission, intestinal transit was measured by timing a Brilliant Blue marker from oral administration to its appearance in the faeces of non-HPN patients and HPN patients with a preserved colon. These measurements revealed intestinal transit times of less than 10 hours, except in three HPN patients with oral failure and intestinal dysmotility.

Thus the limited duration of intestinal transit indicated that 10 hours of fasting between 2200 and 0800 were sufficient so that the events prior to the balance study did not influence the 48 hour balance Fluzone Intradermal Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine)- Multum. Patients were interviewed about the composition and volume of parenteral support, and information on daily medicine use was obtained.

During admission, patients received their usual parenteral supplements and medication. None of the patients was receiving sodium chloride capsules, but patients drinking a glucose-saline solution were told to place a similar portion in their food container. None of the patients required tube feeding (enteral nutrition). Patient height and fasting body weight were measured on admission.

Body composition was measured during or before admission by dual energyx ray absorptiometry (Norland XR-26 DXA densitometer, Norland Corp. In addition, patient weight six months before admission was obtained from weight curves drawn at ambulatory visits. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was calculated according to the Harris-Benedict equations using actual body weights. Intestinal wet weight absorption was calculated as equivalent to the difference between the weight of the oral intake and faecal weight.

Analyses of the diet and faeces were performed on homogenised, freeze dried samples. The precision of the analytical methods used was demonstrated previously as high, with high reproducibility. Weight and energy content in parenteral supplements was calculated from information given by the manufacturers.

The remnant small intestine was measured peroperatively in 56 patients whereas the length of cardiac muscle was measured in 31 patients. One of the non-HPN and two of the HPN patients did not have Atrovent Nasal Spray .06 (Ipratropium Bromide Nasal Spray .06)- Multum of the small intestine.

The length of the colon was expressed in terms of percentage of the usual length according to the method of Cummings and colleagues. The procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. All patients gave informed consent before entering the study.

Most patients had Crohn's disease (37 of 44 in the non-HPN group and 26 of 45 in the HPN group). The two groups had a similar BMR, calculated from the Harris-Benedict equations. Sex and age distributions did not differ between groups. The remnant gut structures of patients are described Atrovent Nasal Spray .06 (Ipratropium Bromide Nasal Spray .06)- Multum table 2.

Median dietary energy intake was considerably higher in the non-HPN compared with the HPN patients (11. In the HPN patients, parenteral support was 3. Faecal energy excretion did not differ significantly between the two groups and consequently the abundant intake of the non-HPN patients resulted in intestinal absorption of energy (7. Intestinal wet weight absorption was threefold higher in the non-HPN patients (2. Oral intakes were 3.

Parenteral fluid supply was 2. This arbitrary confidence interval was found to be reasonable. This definition was based solely on data obtained from non-HPN patients to avoid confounding factors from HPN, which may reduce dietary intake and consequently the amount of energy and wet weight Atrovent Nasal Spray .06 (Ipratropium Bromide Nasal Spray .06)- Multum in patients receiving HPN.



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