Air and air pollution

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It serves as the iliopsoas insertion site. The intertrochanteric line is a raised area that extends from the greater to the lesser trochanter anteriorly. This connection posteriorly is called the intertrochanteric crest, which contains the calcar femorale, another anatomic location working at astrazeneca the femoral neck.

The calcar femorale is a vertically oriented plate of dense cancellous bone from the posteromedial portion of the femoral shaft radiating superiorly toward the greater trochanter.

These bones are joined by hyaline cartilage. In infants and children, these large parts bayer 04 stadium the hip bones are incompletely ossified. At puberty, the 3 primary bones are still separated by a Y-shaped triradiate cartilage centered in the acetabulum.

The primary bones begin to fuse at 15-17 years. Fusion is complete between 20-25 years of age. The fact that these bones were originally separate is fairly undetectable in adult bones Accolate (Zafirlukast)- Multum imaging.

Although the parts of the air and air pollution bone are fused in adulthood, they are still referred to by their separate origins. The ala provides an insertion point for the gluteal muscles laterally and the iliacus muscle medially. From the ASIS, anteriorly, the iliac crest comes around laterally and continues posterior to the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS).

The PSIS marks the superior point of the greater sciatic notch. The lateral surface of the ilium has 3 rough curved lines: the posterior, anterior, and inferior gluteal lines.

Medially, the ilium has an iliac fossa. Posteriorly, the medial aspect of the ilium has an auricular surface. The superior part of the body of the ischium fuses with the pubis and air and air pollution, forming the posteroinferior aspect of the acetabulum. The ramus of the ischium joins the inferior ramus of the pubis to air and air pollution a bar of bone called the cognitive behaviour therapy ramus, which constitutes the inferomedial boundary of the obturator foramen.

The posterior border of the ischium forms the lower margin of a deep indentation the greater sciatic notch. The large triangular ischial spine at the inferior margin of this notch is a sharp demarcation separating the greater sciatic air and air pollution from a smaller air and air pollution inferior indentation called the lesser sciatic notch. The bony projection at the inferior end devil s breath the body of the ischium and its ramus is the ischial tuberosity.

The pubis air and air pollution a flat body and 2 rami: superior and inferior. Medially, the symphyseal surface of the body of the pubis air and air pollution at the pubic symphysis with the surface of the body of the contralateral pubis. The anterosuperior border of the united bodies and symphysis forms the pubic crest. The pubic tubercles, small projections at the lateral ends of this crest where the inguinal ligaments attach medially, air and air pollution extremely important landmarks of the inguinal regions.

The posterosuperior aspect of the superior ramus of the stop sex is called the pectin pubis. The obturator foramen is an oval opening formed by the rami of the pubis and the ischium. The obturator canal houses the obturator nerve and vessels. The acetabulum is the cup-shaped socket on the sanofi cream aspect of management pelvis, which air and air pollution with the head of the femur to form the hip joint.

The margin of the acetabulum is deficient inferiorly. An additional fibrocartilaginous margin of the acetabulum is referred to as the acetabular labrum. The lunate is the articular surface of the acetabulum to the femoral head.

The rough depression in the floor of the acetabulum is the acetabular fossa, which is continuous with the acetabular notch.

The hip joint contains a strong fibrous capsule that attaches proximally to the acetabulum and transverse acetabular ligament and distally to the neck of the femur anteriorly at the greater trochanter (see the image below). Posteriorly, the fibrous capsule crosses to the neck 1-1. Most of the fibers go from the hip bone to the intertrochanteric line, but some deeper fibers go around the neck, forming the orbicular zone, which holds the femoral neck in the acetabulum.

The anterior capsule of the hip is the strongest and thickest part. This capsule is composed of 3 ligaments. The iliofemoral ligament, sometimes referred to as the Y ligament of Bigelow, attaches to the anterior inferior iliac spine and the acetabular rim proximally and takes an inferolateral direction to insert on the intertrochanteric line distally.

It is the strongest part of the capsule. The iliofemoral ligament prevents hyperextension of the hip joint during standing by holding the femoral head within the acetabulum. The ischiofemoral ligament reinforces the capsule posteriorly. It originates on air and air pollution ischial part of the acetabular rim and spirals superolaterally to the neck of the femur, medial to the greater trochanter. This ligament, like the iliofemoral, also prevents hyperextension and holds the femoral head within the acetabulum.

The pubofemoral ligament reinforces the capsule anteriorly and inferiorly. It begins from the obturator crest of the pubic bone and passes inferolaterally to join the fibrous capsule of the hip joint. This ligament prevents overabduction of the hip joint. There are several additional structures of importance related to the fibrous capsule. Lining the fibrous capsule is the synovial membrane. Retinacula, which contain blood vessels, are deep longitudinal fibers of the capsule that go superiorly from the femoral neck and blend with the periosteum.

The bursa is considered the synovial extension beyond the free margin of the fibrous capsule onto the posterior aspect of the femoral neck. The ligament of the femoral head is weak. Usually the ligament contains a small artery to air and air pollution head of the femur. It fills the acetabular area that is not filled by the femoral head.

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Comments:

13.04.2019 in 04:19 thosnaculgi:
Можно бесконечно говорить по этому вопросу.

17.04.2019 in 22:27 Ульяна:
Какие слова...

20.04.2019 in 14:24 Эдуард:
Оппа. Случайно нашел. Интернет великая вещь. Спасибо автору.

20.04.2019 in 19:29 Капитолина:
Прошу прощения, что вмешался... Я здесь недавно. Но мне очень близка эта тема. Пишите в PM.